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This part of the topic looks specifically at migration within New Zealand and the issues around migration for the place of origin, the destination and the migrants themselves. Essentially you need to be able to answer the next three questions, with the use of a push-pull model of migration and explanations for each.

What are the migration movements within a population?
  • Northward Drift, Drift to Auckalnd, Rural to Urban, Intra-Urban are the main movments in New Zealand and the relevant counterflow movements for each one. Note - these sometimes have different names, and your teacher may call them something different just check the definition of each one.
Why do these migration movements occur?
  • You need to be able to identify and explain specific push factors and pull factors of the migration and the obstacles that could stop people from moving. You must be able to illustrate these in a push-pull model of migration.

What are the issues associated with these migration movements?
  • You need to be able to identify and explain specific issues to do with each migration flow. This means being able to identify and explain the effects migration has on the place of origin, the destination and on the people themselves.



NZ_map_of_migration_flows.JPGThe map to the side shows two of the migration movements and one counterflow migration.

Counterflow migration is the opposite flow of movement to what you are describing. Eg If one Northward Drift movement is from Christchurch to Nelson, then the counterflow movement is Nelson to Christchurch.



















Northward Drift


Northward Drift is basically any migration movement that heads North. It does not necessarily have to be to a bigger urban area, although it often is.

Examples of Northward Drift:
  • Wellington to Auckland
  • Dunedin to Christchurch
  • Invercargill to Dunedin
  • Hokitika to Nelson
  • Napier to Whangarei
  • Auckland to Whangarei

Why does Northward Drift occur?
Below is a generic push-pull model for Northward Drift. You would need to make this specific to a specific place of origin and destination and give specific examples of each push factor and pull factor to gain above an Achieved grade.


What are the issues associated with Northward Drift?

Population Issues in Manukau City
Population growth and associated issues in Auckland

Counterflow - Southward Drift
Southward Drift is in fact a migration flow in its own right. People are heading South for cheaper lifestyles, housing and a slower paced life.


Drift to Auckland


A variation on the Northward Drift, is the drift to Auckland. The reasons and issues are much the same as Northward Drift. Given that a quarter of New Zealand's population live in Auckland, it is the primate city of New Zealand with many opportunites.

Counterflow


Rural to Urban


Rural to Urban migration is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas (farms and small rural communities to cities). This process is also called urbanisation, where there is a steady increase in the number of people migrating to the urban areas.This migration flow often follows a step-wise migration process.

In New Zealand, there has been a steady increase in the number of people living in urban areas. The number of people in rural areas has steadily decreased. As a result, New Zealand has one of the highest urban populations in the world with 87% living in urban areas.

Step-wise migration is when people move from a village, then to a town, then to a city, then to a primate city. This can be followed over any time period, and does not necessarily have to follow that exact pattern. By looking at the diagram below, you should be able to identify why people would migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

Stepwise_migration.jpg


Examples of Rural to Urban migration in New Zealand:
  • Bombay to Auckland
  • Morrinsville to Hamilton
  • Pukekawa to Manukau
  • Pokuru to Cambridge
  • Gladeston to Masterton
  • Urenui to New Plymouth
  • Kawakawa to Whangarei
  • Aka Aka to Pukekohe
  • Chatam Islands to the NZ Mainland

Why does Rural to Urban migration occur?
Below is a generic push-pull model for Rural to Urban migration. You would need to make this specific to a specific place of origin and destination and give specific examples of each push factor and pull factor to gain above an Achieved grade.


What are the issues associated with Rural to Urban Migration?

Negative Cumulative Causation (Spiral of Decline)


Counterflow Migration - Urban back to Rural areas.


Intra-Urban Migration


Intra-Urban migration is the movement of people within an urban centre. This is probably one of the most common migration movements in New Zealand as peopel move from one suburb to another within a city.


Why does intra-urban migration occur?
Below is a generic push-pull model for Rural to Urban migration. You would need to make this specific to a specific place of origin and destination and give specific examples of each push factor and pull factor to gain above an Achieved grade.


What are the issues associated with intra-urban migration?



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